Histidine is an amino acid derived from proteins by hydrolysis. The highest concentration (almost 8.5 percent of the total) is contained in hemoglobin. It was first isolated from proteins in 1896.
What is histidine
It is well known that when we eat meat, we consume protein, and amino acids are part of proteins. Histidine is one of the most important amino acids for maintaining life on Earth. This proteinogenic substance is involved in the formation of proteins and affects a number of metabolic reactions in the body.
All amino acids are the building blocks for proteins. After digesting the protein, the body receives individual amino acids. Some of them are interchangeable (the body is capable of producing them) and irreplaceable (can only be obtained through diet). Histidine in this regard is a unique substance - an amino acid interchangeable and irreplaceable at the same time. Or as it is customary to call it - half-replaceable.
The greatest need for this amino acid is felt by infants, since they need histidine as a growth agent. Babies get it through breast milk or from baby food. Also, this substance is indispensable for adolescents and people after serious illnesses. An unbalanced diet and frequent stresses lead to amino acid deficiency, which can manifest itself as a slowdown or complete stunting in children and rheumatoid arthritis in adults.
One of the most striking characteristics of histidine is the ability to transform into other substances, including histamine and hemoglobin. Also involved in a number of metabolic reactions, promotes the supply of oxygen to organs and tissues. In addition, it helps to remove heavy metals from the body, restore tissue and strengthen immunity.
Other functions of histidine:
- regulation of blood acidity;
- acceleration of wound healing;
- coordination of growth mechanisms;
- natural recovery of the body.
Without histidine, all processes associated with growth will stop, and the regeneration of damaged tissues will become impossible. Also a consequence of the absence of histidine in the body is inflammation of the skin and mucous membranes of the body, and recovery after surgery will be delayed for a longer time. In addition, histidine has a therapeutic effect in inflammation, which means it is an effective medicine for arthritis.
In addition to the already mentioned beneficial properties, this amino acid has another no less significant ability - it helps to form myelin sheaths of nerve cells (their damage causes Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases, as well as other degenerative diseases). Also, this semi-essential amino acid is involved in the synthesis of red and white blood cells (red blood cells and white blood cells), which again helps to strengthen the immune system. And finally, it is important to say that histidine protects the body from radiation.
Histidine in medicine
Although the prophylactic and therapeutic potential of histidine has not yet been fully explored, a number of studies have already proven the effectiveness of amino acids. In particular, it is known that this beneficial substance helps lower blood pressure. Relaxing blood vessels, prevents hypertension, atherosclerosis, heart attack and other cardiac diseases. It has already been proven that daily intake of this substance reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease by almost 61 percent.
Another area of application of histidine is nephrology. Amino acid has a positive effect on the condition of people with chronic renal failure (especially in old age).
In addition, this substance has been shown to be effective in the treatment of hepatitis, stomach ulcers, urticaria, arthritis and AIDS.
Therapeutic doses of histidine range from 0.5 to 20 g per day.
But even consuming 30 g of amino acid per day does not cause side effects. So, in any case, the researchers convince. But they immediately specify: provided that the drug is not taken for a long time. But still, the most adequate is called the dosage of 1-8 g per day. More precisely, the individual minimum amino acid requirement can be outstripped by the formula: 10-12 mg of substance - per 1 kg of body weight. Histidine as a dietary supplement is best taken on an empty stomach. So its action is more effective.
Combination with other substances
Recent studies have shown that the combination of histidine and zinc is an effective remedy for colds. In addition, zinc promotes easier absorption of amino acids. In addition, an experiment involving 40 people showed that a “cocktail” of zinc and histidine minimizes the duration of diseases caused by viruses or bacteria. A cold against an amino acid lasts an average of 3-4 days less.
Features of the reception
Histidine as a dietary supplement is useful for people with arthritis, anemia, or after surgery.
People with bipolar disorders, allergies, asthma and all kinds of inflammations are better off avoiding this drug. Also, caution for supplements containing amino acids should be considered for women during pregnancy and lactation, as well as for people with folic acid deficiency.
Chronic diseases, injuries, and stress increase the need for histidine. In this case, it is rather difficult to satisfy the needs of the body exclusively through products. But the problems are solved with the help of bioactive additives. Digestive disorders and low acidity are also the reasons for a more intensive intake of the substance.
Violation of histidine metabolism is manifested by a rare genetic disease of histidinemia. In such patients, there is no enzyme that breaks down the amino acid. As a result, the level of amino acids in urine and blood rises sharply.
Dangers of scarcity
Studies show that people with rheumatoid arthritis usually have low histidine levels. Amino acid deficiency in infants often causes eczema. In addition, insufficient intake of the substance leads to cataracts, and also provokes diseases of the stomach and duodenum. It is known that histidine affects the immune system, for this reason amino acid deficiency enhances allergies, makes the body more prone to infections and inflammatory processes. Inadequate consumption of the substance negatively affects the health of children and adolescents during intensive growth and formation of the body.
Also, amino acid deficiency can "remind" of oneself by developmental delays, decreased libido, hearing impairment and fibromyalgia.
Is excess dangerous
There is no information on the possible toxicity of histidine. But still, the consumption of amino acids in especially high doses can cause allergic or asthmatic reactions, provoke a deficiency of copper and zinc, and, on the contrary, increase the concentration of cholesterol in the blood. In men, an excess of histidine causes premature ejaculation.
Histidine in food
Properly selected foods will help meet your daily amino acid requirement. For example, only 100 g of beans provide more than 1 gram portion of histidine (1097 mg), the same amount of chicken fillet will enrich the body with an additional 791 mg of substance, and a similar portion of beef will give about 680 mg of histidine. For fish products, approximately 550 mg of the amino acid is found in a 100-gram piece of salmon. And among plant foods, wheat germ is the most nutritious. In 100 g of the product - within 640 mg of the amino acid.
However, it is important to note that these figures are approximate, since the saturation of food with useful substances depends on many factors. And of no small importance are the storage conditions of the product. If we are talking about histidine, then to preserve its maximum amount in peas, walnuts or corn, products must be kept in airtight conditions, away from direct sunlight and oxygen. Otherwise, histidine is rapidly destroyed.
To maintain the balance of amino acids in an adult, the substance that is synthesized in the liver from other amino acids is usually enough. But for children in the period of intensive growth and some other groups of people, it is important to supplement the amine reserves from the right food.
Protein products contain, if not all, then at least most of the essential amino acids for humans. Products of animal origin contain the so-called complete proteins, therefore they are more useful in terms of supplying amino substances. Plant foods contain only a few of the essential ones. Although it is not difficult to replenish histidine, the more so since the body is able to produce it, but there are still cases of substance deficiency. The use of products from different groups will help to avoid a decrease in concentration.
There is a high concentration of histidine in meat, fish, dairy products, and some cereals (rice, rye, wheat). Other sources of amino acids: seafood, beans, eggs, buckwheat, cauliflower, potatoes, mushrooms, bananas, citrus fruits, melon.
The daily norm of amino acids can be provided from dishes prepared from beef, pork, lamb and poultry, different varieties of hard cheese, soy products, as well as fish (tuna, salmon, trout, mackerel, halibut, sea bass). From the group of seeds and nuts, it is important to consume almonds, sesame seeds, peanuts, sunflower seeds, pistachios. And from dairy products - natural yogurts, milk and sour cream. In the cereal category, a lot of histidine is found in wild rice, millet and buckwheat.
Histidine is an essential amino acid for health. It is necessary for the growth and restoration of tissues, the production of blood cells and the histamine neurotransmitter. This substance is able to reliably protect tissues from damage by radiation or heavy metals. Therefore, it is important to monitor your diet in order to provide the body with a sufficient amount of amino acid. Foods rich in substance are needed by children and adolescents, as well as by individuals after injuries or surgeries. This semi-essential amino acid has already been proven effective in maintaining human health. And you already know how to provide yourself with this useful substance.