Apples are commonly called one of the healthiest foods currently available to humans. These are fruits with a high content of fiber and vitamin C, at the same time they have very few calories, almost no sodium, fat and cholesterol. People more familiar with chemistry also know that apples are rich in polyphenols with antioxidant properties. By the way, these substances are more concentrated in the skin of the fruit, so unpeeled fruits are healthier. Apples can relieve asthma and Alzheimer's disease, they are useful for losing weight, strengthening bones, improving the respiratory and digestive systems.
Do you think that this is all the healing properties of apples? You are mistaken! No wonder all over the world these crispy fruits with rosy sides are considered magic food.
What kind of fruit is this?
An apple is the fruit of a tree belonging to the Rosaceae family. Researchers suggest that the first gardens of these trees appeared on the fertile soil of Kazakhstan's mountain ranges. Archaeologists found evidence that as early as the 7th millennium BC, people already knew and ate apples. Over the centuries, thousands of varieties and hybrids of this culture have appeared. Some of them were deduced by nature itself, some by the handiwork of man. The color, shape, taste and aroma of the fruit are determined by the variety.
All apple trees are usually divided into several varieties:
- summer (ripen in July);
- Autumn (ripe in September);
- winter (ripen by the end of autumn).
The most popular summer varieties
- White filling - rounded fruits, first greenish, and then almost white, fragrant, with fleshy flesh and sour taste;
- Melba - round-elongated, yellowish with a blush, with white sweet and sour flesh and the smell of sweets;
- Mantet - green-red fruits with a rounded-oblong shape, creamy flesh, not sour;
- Moscow Grushovka - flattened fruits, pale green with a pinkish blush, fragrant, juicy and sour;
- Candy - rounded, with a red blush and delicate white flesh.
- Macintosh - green-yellow with purple stripes, white flesh with reddish veins, spicy;
- Shtreyfling - green-yellow with characteristic brown-orange stripes, flesh is pale yellow, juicy, with raspberry flavor;
- Glory to the winners - a hybrid of White filling and Macintosh varieties, green with red blush, fragrant and creamy flesh;
- Zhigulevskoe - yellow with red stripes, creamy flesh, granular, sour.
- Antonovka - yellowish-golden, flesh white, sour, crunchy;
- Jonathan - yellow-green with a red blush, sometimes covered with a net, the flesh is juicy, cream-colored;
- Saffron pepin - roundish, greenish-yellowish, creamy flesh, wine-sweet, aromatic;
- Golden Delicious - conical fruits, golden, juicy, creamy flesh;
- Sinap Oryol - oblong fruits of golden color, with sour flesh.
Over the past few years, scientists have made many discoveries about the chemical composition of apples. The complex of phytonutrients in these fruits is much wider than previously thought. One of the main phytonutrients is called quercetin, the main reserves of which are concentrated in the peel. Also, the fruits contain no less useful flavonoids kempferol and myricetin. Red varieties are rich in anthocyanins, which also accumulate mainly in the peel. Since most of the polyphenols found in apples have antioxidant properties, it is not surprising that studies prove the beneficial effects of fruits on the body.
Vitamin C found in apples is also a powerful natural antioxidant that can block some damage to cells caused by free radicals. Vitamin B complex is important for maintaining the health of the nervous system, creating red blood cells. Fiber is useful for improving digestion, preventing many diseases, and maintaining healthy cholesterol. And phytonutrients prevent malignant degeneration of cells.
|Calorie content||52 kcal|
|Vitamin A||6.2 mcg|
|Vitamin B1||0.06 mg|
|Vitamin B2||0.05 mg|
|Vitamin B3||0.1 mg|
|Vitamin B5||0.1 mg|
|Vitamin B6||0.08 mg|
|Vitamin B9||3.2 mcg|
|Vitamin C||5.1 mg|
|Vitamin E||0.2 mg|
|Vitamin K||2.21 mcg|
Benefits for the body
Laboratory experiments prove that phytonutrients and antioxidants found in apples reduce the risk of cancer, asthma, hypertension, diabetes, heart disease and blood vessels.
Numerous scientific studies indicate that these fruits are among the most healthy and should be included in the daily diet of people who care about their health. Here are just some of the benefits proven by researchers of these fruits.
Impact on Neurological Health
More than 10 years ago, scientists discovered quercetin in apples. This substance belongs to antioxidants, and in fruits it is contained in extremely rich quantities. Through scientific experiments, it was found that this chemical compound prevents the death of nerve cells caused by oxidation and inflammation of neurons.
In another study, it was determined that apple juice activates the production of acetylcholine in the brain of the neurotransmitter, which improves memory in individuals with Alzheimer's disease. Another experience convinced scientists that people who consume these fruits are less likely to develop dementia. It was also found that apple juice prevents brain aging, protects organ cells from free radicals, and serves to prevent Parkinson's disease.
Nearly 10 thousand men and women took part in the study, which lasted more than 20 years. Summing up the results, scientists suggested: apple lovers are less likely to develop a stroke.
After another experiment, American scientists called apples miracle fruits. Researchers noticed: if you eat several fruits every day, the so-called "bad" cholesterol is reduced by 23%, and the "good" cholesterol grows by 4%. To achieve this effect, the participants in the experiment took six months.
Protection against anemia
Due to its high iron content, in folk medicine, apples are one of the most popular medicines for anemia. The cause of anemia is a hemoglobin deficiency in the blood. It is easy to fix the problem by including in the diet foods rich in iron, a mineral that is key in the formation of red blood cells.
Apples are an effective and tasty way to treat.
Apples will help prevent the development of diabetes. A study with almost 200 thousand people showed that people who consume apples, grapes, raisins, blueberries or pears three times a week are less likely to develop the disease. Scientists also determined: the high content of soluble fiber in apples prevents hyperglycemia (a sharp increase in blood sugar).
Excessive accumulation of cholesterol causes the formation of gallstones. Eating apples regularly prevents this problem. In addition, the apple diet is considered the most effective diet for liver detoxification.
These fruits are also useful to people with impaired bowel function. Fiber from apples is equally effective in relieving constipation and diarrhea, relieving symptoms of irritable bowel, flatulence, and relieving stomach pain. Also, these fruits are important for the prevention of hemorrhoids.
Apples, especially red varieties, contain high concentrations of quercetin antioxidant. This substance is considered one of the most useful for strengthening the protective functions of the body. For this reason, it is important for people with weakened immune systems to introduce red apples into their diet.
Every year there is more evidence that even 1 apple per day will help prevent breast cancer, the formation of tumors in the liver and colon. Researchers attribute this phenomenon to the presence of phenolic substances in fruits. These chemical compounds have many beneficial properties. But to enhance the effect, researchers are urging to avoid fruit monotony in the diet - alternating apples with other healthy fruits.
Benefits for teeth
Apples will not replace a toothbrush, but they do present some benefits for teeth. In particular, chewing on crispy fruits stimulates the production of saliva. And it, in turn, has a detrimental effect on bacteria contained in the oral cavity, thereby preventing the risk of caries.
Summing up the results of a long-term study, scientists determined that people in whose diet apples appear regularly and in sufficient quantities are 15 percent less at risk for cataracts. The reason for this is called the antioxidants contained in the fruit.
The benefits of losing weight
Besides the fact that apples are extremely rich in fiber, and it is the best way to fight hunger, these fruits have other advantages for people trying to lose weight. Research results show that these fruits accelerate metabolism, which means that calories in the body are burned faster than usual, and some of them are not absorbed at all. Millions of people all over the world choose apples as a key ingredient in a diet for weight loss. In addition, nutritionists have developed several options for an apple diet designed to help obese people.
Apples in cosmetology: benefits and harms
Mashed fruit mixed with honey or milk is an effective way to combat age-related skin changes. Apples, being powerful antioxidants, protect the skin from the harmful effects of free radicals, early aging and the formation of age spots. To cleanse and moisturize the skin, you can use slices of fresh fruit (grate your face and wait until the juice is absorbed). Also, the apple-cream mixture is an excellent remedy for acne, acne, acne. A natural apple cider vinegar can be used as a means of restoring a healthy skin pH (moisten a cotton swab in a liquid, wipe the face). To get rid of the dark circles around the eyes, swelling of the eyelids, it is enough to apply slices of a juicy apple for 10 minutes (as an option - make a mask of apple cider and mashed potato).
This delicious fruit is also useful for hair. Products containing apple concentrate stimulate the growth of curls, strengthen them, make them shiny and prevent baldness.
In addition, fruit remedies are also effective in eliminating dandruff. The easiest way for apple therapy: rinse curls with juice or apple cider vinegar.
Nutritionists say that the most useful way to consume apples is to eat them raw, and even with a peel. But if raw apples are already fed up, there are many interesting tasty variations on the theme of apples in cooking. Here are some of them:
- Bake fruit with cinnamon, stuffed with cottage cheese or oatmeal.
- As a side dish, cook apples fried with onions.
- Bring the slices of fruit to a boil and rub through a sieve - you get delicious mashed potatoes.
- Add sliced fruit to the pancake dough - an option for a delicious breakfast.
- Bake with turkey or chicken.
- Make soup with carrots, apples and ginger.
- Cook the compote.
- Salt for the winter.
- Add to salads.
- Fry the apple rings.
- Make apple chips.
- Prepare the filling for the pie.
- Make a smoothie or smoothie.
How else to use apples?
Perhaps many housewives happened to salt the soup. There are various tricks to remove excess salt from the finished dish. One of them is with apples. It is enough to boil a couple of fruit pieces in a soup for several minutes, and they will absorb excess salt.
Apples can also be used as a natural air freshener or as a catalyst for ripening green fruits (put together with apples in a paper bag). And if you want to preserve the freshness of bread for longer, put baking and a slice of apple in a sealed container.
Potential Fruit Hazard
As a rule, apples do not cause any serious side effects. But it is important to know that the seeds of these fruits contain amygdalin, which can cause the formation of cyanide, and this is a powerful poison. Although a couple of seeds, of course, is not dangerous, but excessive consumption can even be fatal. Chemists calculated the lethal dose of cyanide: 1 mg of substance per 1 kg of body weight. 1 kg of apple seeds contains almost 700 mg of cyanide. Thus, 100 g of seeds can be a fatal dose for a 70 kg person. But in practice, eating such an amount is almost impossible. One apple seed weighs about 0.7 g, which means that to get a lethal dose of cyanide you have to eat 143 seeds. And if you take into account that in 1 apple there are no more than 8 seeds, it turns out that a fatal outcome is possible only if you eat 18 apples with seeds in one sitting.
Potentially dangerous for teeth are apples of sour varieties. The acid in the fruit causes damage to the enamel. Such fruits are recommended by dentists to chew with their back teeth, after cutting off small pieces with a knife. And immediately after a snack, it is necessary to rinse your mouth with water to wash off unnecessary acid and sugar.
Another possible minus of apples is pesticides. To get rid of the "chemistry" it is enough to wash the fruits well under running water.
How to choose and store
First rule: look for solid fruits with rich color. Gustatory qualities are important - pay attention to the gastronomic characteristics of the variety.
Ripe fruits can be stored for several months. At the same time, the variety is also a key factor. Low temperatures (up to 2-4 degrees Celsius) and high humidity are ideal conditions for storing fruits.
When buying or harvesting apples for storage, it is important to carefully inspect each fruit, immediately remove rotten or damaged apples from crates from the crates. Fruits with "bruises" secrete substances that accelerate the spoilage of healthy fruits.
Apples are called one of the most popular and delicious fruits on the planet. They are remembered when it is necessary to satisfy hunger or thirst, they are used as a dessert and as an ingredient in main dishes. The benefits of apples were known even by the ancient Greeks, Romans and Scandinavian tribes. They were appreciated in Asia and the Americas. Today it is difficult to imagine life without apples and delicious juice from these fruits.