Tartaric acid is a food supplement labeled in the single additive classifier with the E334 mark and possessing preservative properties. This substance, originally known as a by-product of winemaking, was widely used to prevent the growth and development of bacteria in wine barrels, and now it is being used with might and main in the food industry, and not only.
Description of the additive and its main characteristics
The food additive E334 has other names: tartaric acid, dioxiuccinic acid, Tartaric acid for use in foodstuffs, tartaric acid, L (+) - tartaric acid, 2,3-dihydroxybutanedioic acid and others.
It has excellent antioxidant properties, acting as a preservative and acidity regulator. It significantly enhances the properties of other similar antioxidants, and therefore is often used in complexes of various additives.
For the first time, a method of producing tartaric acid, which has been successfully used to this day, was proposed in the eighteenth century by the Swedish chemist Karl Wilhelm Scheele. However, it is believed that long before that, the product was obtained by the alchemist Jabir ibn Khayyam.
At the moment, this substance is produced in a natural way, the source for which is waste from wine production. On barrels during storage and fermentation of wine, a cremortartar is formed - tartar, which is most often the main product for the production of tartaric acid. Additional ingredients are: dried wine yeast, dried sediment formed during the storage of wort, lime acid, squeezed, chalk sediment formed when the acidity of the product decreases, as well as wine residues in barrels.
It turns out such an additive when exposed to components of calcium salts, with their subsequent splitting with sulfuric acid.
Of the impurities, malic acid is quite acceptable, as well as tartars - esters of tartaric acid.
Such an additive is produced in two varieties: top and first. Grade directly depends on the quality of the feedstock and the degree of its subsequent purification.
Since this substance is obtained using chemical exposure, it is not allowed to be considered completely natural.
Tartaric acid is a fine powder or crystals that do not have a characteristic color and odor. They dissolve well in water, ether and ethyl alcohol, but are completely insoluble in oily liquids and fats. Tartaric acid has an acidic taste and poorly absorbs moisture.
Naturally found in citrus fruits and grapes, currants and apples. Natural wine is also rich in it.
Leading Food Additive Manufacturers
The leading manufacturers of E334 are both Russian and foreign companies:
- JSC "Ural Plant of Industrial Chemistry";
- Component-Reagent LLC, located in Moscow;
- German corporation JEBSEN & JESSEN GMBH & CO. KG;
- UD Chemie GmbH, also registered in Germany;
- Japanese company Clean SRL.
Pack such a substance in various containers:
- multilayer laminated paper bags;
- bags of linen, kenaf, jute fabrics, not lower than the second grade, with an additional inner liner made of polyethylene;
- non-impregnated three-layer paper bags, with an additional polyethylene liner;
- Boxes for packing food products are plank, inside equipped with parchment, excluding gaps and gaps.
Pack the substance in bags of 30 kilograms. The only exception is fabric bags, which holds 40 kilograms of products.
The use of food additives E334 in various fields
This additive is approved for use in the food industry in all countries of the world community. It is very popular due to its poor moisture-absorbing qualities, sour taste and absolute harmlessness. It is widely used as a regulator of acidity, antioxidant and preservative in the manufacture of various products. It is located in the following products:
- marmalades and various jellies;
- berry and fruit ice cream;
- canned vegetables and fruits;
- pasta and bakery products;
- cocoa and chocolate.
Tartaric acid is used to acidify products in the production of wines, beer, liquors and soft drinks. The E334 supplement is very popular in molecular cuisine, where it is used to give blackcurrant flavor to beetroot marmalade.
Tartaric acid has also found application in the cosmetology industry. It is used as an additional ingredient in body and face care products. It helps increase skin firmness and elasticity.
The antioxidant properties of this substance are successfully used in the manufacture of anti-aging cosmetics, whitening and tonic lotions, moisturizers. Also included in various peels.
The E334 supplement has proven itself in the medical and pharmaceutical industries. There it is used in the manufacture of instant tablets that relieve a hangover syndrome, help relieve heaviness in the stomach, and get rid of heartburn.
As one of the components, tartaric acid is included in diuretics and laxatives, contributing to the normalization of metabolic processes in the body.
Also use this substance for other purposes:
- in electronics and electrical engineering, in the manufacture of computers, microphones;
- in the production of non-ferrous metals;
- in analytical chemistry, for the separation of racemates of organic substances into isomers, as well as for the detection of aldehydes;
- for dyeing fabrics in the textile industry;
- as a moderator of setting gypsum mixture in the construction industry.
Useful and dangerous properties of tartaric acid
Semi-natural food supplement E334 has the same beneficial properties for the body as the natural element. It helps to improve digestion, does not cause allergic reactions, and also significantly increases energy and vitality.
The maximum allowable daily allowance for this substance is considered to be thirty milligrams per kilogram of weight. Exceeding this dose is strictly prohibited, since it is a dangerous toxin that causes muscle paralysis, which leads to death.
However, in the industrial sector, the production of products uses such a small amount of this substance that it can be consumed absolutely without worrying about one's own health. That is why the food supplement E334 is generally considered a safe product.
In order not to be unfounded, we present the amount of tartaric acid in carbonated soft drinks, where it contains the most - 1.7 grams per liter of product. And this is several hundred times less than the maximum lethal dose.
This substance is very poorly absorbed in the body. Only a small amount is excreted, and most remains in the form of calcium salts - calcium tartrates - in the intestine.
Tartaric acid is a popular nutritional supplement derived from natural ingredients by treating them with chemicals. Therefore, to call it completely natural is difficult enough. However, at the same time, the substance retains all the beneficial properties, like a natural product. Due to its antioxidant properties, the additive E334 is widely used not only in the production of products, but also in the medical, cosmetic, pharmaceutical and other industries.
Its use is considered absolutely safe, therefore such a substance is allowed in all world countries. However, in no case should you exceed the prescribed daily dose, otherwise it will lead to unpredictable and terrible consequences, and in some cases even death. But it is worth saying that in the food industry it is used in such a scanty amount that it is not necessary to talk about any harm to the body.