Rheography is a diagnostic measure aimed at checking the quality of blood flow in individual organs or systems, and the body as a whole. The method is based on the registration of the graphic type, which became possible thanks to a special device - reograf. He is responsible for measuring the electrical conductivity of a particular organ, which are provided by pulse blood current oscillations.
The technique is in consistently high demand over the years due to the fact that the developers played correctly on the main feature of the blood - high electrical conductivity. All the physical foundations of state measurement are based on systolic and diastolic contractions of the heart muscle. As soon as the blood flows to the selected organ, its electrical conductivity rate will increase significantly. And at the stage of relaxation of the heart, the level of conduction is significantly reduced. Taking into account such indications, it turns out to derive a pulse oscillation curve, which in the future will become the foundation for setting a diagnosis. The following main stages of conducting in medical terminology are called rheogram.
The essence of the technique
Regardless of whether tetrapolar or integral variation of the state assessment is involved, the method will still remain non-invasive. This means that during the examination the patient will not experience painful sensations. Not for nothing that in emergency situations, even children are prescribed testing.
The study of cerebral vessels does not involve damage to the skin, and the current flowing through the skin is so small in power that a person does not feel it. In addition to the lack of perceptible damage to the body, the rheography can boast of hypersensitivity. Due to this, testing helps to identify deviations not only in terms of the functioning of the blood flow in a group of organs, but also in one of them. This is especially true in dentistry.
To assess the health of the body from the inside, a special electric current generator is used, which is called a reograph. It comes with an attachment that allows you to quickly convert incoming information into graphical information for easy reading of the results.
The rheogram of the lower extremities is recorded due to the operation of metal electrodes, which the laboratory assistant pre-imposes on potentially unhealthy areas. In order to reduce the risks of data quality distortion when collecting continuously incoming computer analysis of data, tissue pads are applied in advance between the electrodes and the skin of the victim. They are pre-moistened in sodium chloride, which is designed to improve contact. Also, the nurse before applying the electrode should wipe the skin of the patient with an alcohol solution, which will be the key to removing fatty layers.
What the procedure will show
Having figured out what the essence of the diagnostic method is, people are beginning to wonder how you can independently decipher the result obtained by hand. But without proper knowledge, this is quite problematic, because for the majority the reogram is a kind of mathematical graph, and the impedance of biological tissues does not mean anything at all.
The basis of the picture is based on two aspects:
- sinusoids, which are represented in the form of a steep rise, which describes the arterial blood flow;
- smooth descent, which is a display of venous blood flow.
But not only this allows to assess the condition of the vascular network in the context of the volume and other features of the incoming blood. It will be necessary to take into account the set of curves, use additional calculations, where the Kedrov formula plays a significant role.
The diagnostician will necessarily take into account the regularity of the verified curve, which implies the similarity between several curves. Also taken into account the shape, the number of minor curves that are on the downward phase.
For example, it is worth analyzing the indicators characteristic of vascular dystonia or arrhythmia. On the presented diseases will indicate adjacent curves with different shapes.
Next, a special index is calculated, which should fit into the average statistical interval. Falling out of it threatens to suspect serious pathology.
Separately, the following meanings help determine diseases:
- venous outflow rate;
- amplitude-frequency index;
- measurements of the time interval for the propagation of a pulse wave.
An experienced doctor to take into account different functional tests to make a detailed picture of what is happening.
Varieties of rheography cover a huge number of sentences. But the central variation is consistently in high demand, as it is aimed at an accurate assessment of the state of the heart.
Manipulation relies on the study of blood flow from the pulmonary artery and aorta. It is these two large vessels that allow you to get acquainted in detail with the health of the heart area.
By adopting the blood supply of the lung and right ventricle, it turns out to evaluate the contractile function of the heart muscle.
Normal indicators in clinical practice are as follows:
- flat ascending part;
- round top with a small recess;
- round top with a wave;
- smooth descent.
Conducting a central rheography involves the division of reograms into certain types, depending on the data obtained:
The first version indicates an increased volume of incoming blood. The main indicators of this deviation encompass a high and simultaneously pointed curve with a steep part of the descent.
No less dangerous hypovolemic alignment, but not all patients know what it is.
The scenario provides for a reduced volume of blood flow, which is visible on the visualization due to:
- reduce the height of the curve;
- serifs on the ascending part;
- flat tops;
- gently sloping downward parts.
No less dangerous biophysical manifestations of hypertonic subspecies. This will indicate an elevated pressure in the lungs. The image to recognize the deviations will be due to a steep rise of the curve, as well as a hollow descent and a circular apex.
Rheography for vessels and brain
At registration, you will need to be sure to announce what type of diagnosis is required: to examine the brain or vessels. The latter species is briefly called reovasography. The technique helps to understand the health of the vessels in the lower, upper extremities.
The most common diagnosis is for: brushes; hips; lower legs; shoulders; forearm; Stop.
Some ordinary people are interested in the question of what current is used for the rheography of limbs, but there is no difference, whether it be hands or a brain. The rest of the preparatory stage is also kept identical, and also provides for the active participation of the nurse.
To obtain a more accurate picture of what is happening, a variety of electrodes are used, one of which is necessarily superimposed at the beginning of the study area, and the second at the end. Thus, the lower leg is studied from the ankle joint to the popliteal fossa.
The decoding book says that the normal research parameters are:
- steep ascending part;
- gentle descent with minimally permissible waves;
- round crown.
If something points to a deviation from this norm, then this may be the reason for exposing the most common disease called obliterating endarteritis. People call him a smoker’s foot. The reason for the sharp deterioration of health lies in the defeat of the arteries of the leg and foot. But what are its manifestations on the graphical analysis result? We are talking about reducing the heights of the curves, as well as sealing the tops and the complete absence of auxiliary waves.
Rheography tells about many other problems associated with peripheral vessels. It can be:
- loss of tone;
- fall in elasticity;
- narrowing of the lumen.
The effectiveness of the study increases if you additionally use a duet of functional tests. The first provides for the preliminary intake of nitroglycerin. It usually acts as a vascular dilator. But if the blood channels are damaged, then no increase in size will be noticed.
The second test is based on the need to first do some physical exercise. He will tell the state of the vertebral arteries.
A similar principle is used to assess TMJ, as well as other relatively small study areas. Surgery is amenable to the chest region. Even the brain can be checked with a reograf. Experience based on low current dosages helps to identify common cerebral vascular lesions.
He will also act as evidence of increased intracranial pressure, which is especially important when diagnosing dropsy in newborns. Do not do without the method of controlling recovery after a recent stroke.
Headaches of unknown etiology, dizziness without cause and tinnitus are also indications for testing. Even oncologic dispensaries send their patients to undergo this analysis in order to exclude the development of a tumor compressing blood vessels.
Depending on the characteristics of each individual ward, the method of examination will be chosen, whether it is taking into account the parameters according to Tishchenko, or the standard approach. With the obtained results, the patient returns to the attending physician so that he makes an accurate diagnosis and then selects the optimal course of treatment.