Hydrocele (hydrocele) is a dense tissue sac with fluid that forms around the testicle and as a result leads to a change in the size of the scrotum unilaterally or bilaterally. Hydrocele can often be visualized in newborns, and in most cases the dropsy disappears without the need for outside intervention until the age of one to one. At a later age, testicle dropsy can form through injuries or inflammation of the scrotum.
The disease can develop without associated pain syndromes. Often medicinal or surgical intervention in detecting dropsy is not necessary, since it is completely safe for the human body. But if edema is formed and the scrotum has significantly increased in size, it is necessary to consult a urologist or surgeon in order to determine the cause of its formation and outline further actions.
Signs and symptoms of hydrocele testicles
Basically, an indication of the development of hydrocele is a painless accumulation of fluid around one or both testicles, as a result, a change in the size of the scrotum is observed and discomfort appears. Sometimes the severity of dropsy changes during the day: in the morning - small in size, in the evening - increases.
When it is recommended to see a doctor
Adults should visit a urologist or surgeon in case an increase in the testicle or scrotum is visualized. During the examination period, the doctor will exclude the possibility of the presence of other causes of the appearance of similar symptoms. In some cases, "open" hydrocele is a consequence of the presence and increase of the inguinal hernia. In this case, the problem is urgently corrected through surgical intervention.
If a child has swelling or an increase in the scrotum, it is necessary to immediately show it to a pediatrician, urologist or pediatric surgeon. In the event that the presence of a small dropsy of the testicle is determined until the child is one year old, they do not touch her. If it does not pass at an older age and increases in size, an additional examination is carried out, after which the doctor issues a referral for an operation to remove the testicular drops.
Causes of Hydrocele
There is the likelihood of testicular edema in boys even in the period of intrauterine development. Usually during the development of a child from the abdominal cavity, the testicles descend into the scrotum. It should be noted that the vaginal process of the peritoneum is in each testicle, which, in turn, allows you to accumulate fluid around them.
Most often, this bag is closed, and the fluid can not get from the abdominal cavity into the scrotum. But if a small accumulation of fluid is visualized around the testicle after the sac has been closed, a condition such as “closed” hydrocele will be diagnosed. The bag is closed and fluid cannot return back to the abdominal cavity. In the main shell of the testicle during the first 12 months of life absorb this fluid.
There are situations when the bag remains open, which is fraught with an increase in fluid in it and visualization of the increase in the scrotum. Reducing the size of dropsy in the morning due to the fact that the fluid periodically returns to the abdominal cavity, and then flows back into the scrotum.
In adulthood, testicular dropsy can cause:
- inflammatory disease - orcho-epididymitis, orchitis, epididymitis;
- trauma to the scrotum;
- complication after surgery for varicocele.
Risk factors for hydrocele
Most often, in children, hydrocele is inborn. Premature babies have a large percentage of the likelihood of hydrocele. Of the risk factors worth noting: infections, among which are sexually transmitted; injuries to the scrotum and groin area.
Complications of hydrocele testicles
Education is usually safe for the body and does not affect reproductive function. But still there are cases with the manifestation of serious complications.
An inguinal hernia is a life-threatening condition when a loop of the small intestine, through a weakened area of the abdominal cavity, enters the scrotum and becomes trapped.
Infected hydrocele - the presence of inflammation in the scrotum. Infection can develop after a puncture, the fluid in dropsy begins to rot. This condition is corrected by surgical intervention, in some cases, the removal of the testicle itself is also required. Most often, the functionality of the testicle after infection decreases significantly.
There are cases when dropsy of the testicle masks the development of cancer education.
Inspection and diagnosis
During the visual inspection period, the doctor presses the patient's abdomen. If the scrotum increases in size, there may be an associated hydrocele or an inguinal hernia.
Diaphanoscopy can be used for diagnosis - since the fluid in the dropsy is clear, the doctor may examine the testicle in the lumen. If the testicle is not clearly visualized, this is an indication of the presence of an infection or other disease.
In parallel, a patient is taken a blood test and urine to determine the presence of an inflammatory process in the body.
Sometimes doctors prescribe an ultrasound for a more accurate diagnosis. Using this study, you can exclude or confirm the presence of a tumor, hernia and other pathological diseases that provoke an increase in the scrotum.
Algorithm of the operation hydrocele
Most often, surgical intervention involves men in adulthood, when an increase in the size of the scrotum and other pathological changes are observed.
Hydrocelectomy is the removal of testicular edema, performed on an outpatient basis under local (spinal or general) anesthesia. The incision is made either in the lower abdomen or on the scrotum. If the dropsy is detected during an operation to remove an inguinal hernia, the surgeon simultaneously removes it, even if it visually carries no danger. After the operation, the patient must regularly wear a special tight bandage or compression garment. Immediately after the operation, an ice pack is applied to the incision site to reduce the appearance of puffiness. Surgical intervention can cause blood clots in the scrotum area, infection of the wound and damage to the testicle itself.
A safer option is puncture. Using a long needle, the scrotum is gently punctured, all fluid is drawn by gravity through the needle and the silicone tube. This method is ideal for men with a disease of the cardiovascular system and with problems with blood clotting. Among the risks is the possibility of infection of the scrotum organs.
Among modern techniques it is worth noting the use of a laser during the operation. Laser excision is a safe procedure without bleeding and the ability to infect the scrotum or wound.
Dropsy can recur after treatment, it is important to diagnose it in time and consult a doctor.