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Hemophilus influenza vaccination

More than a century ago, doctors believed that influenza develops when a hemophilic bacillus (Pfeiffer's bacillus) enters the human body. However, today it is known for certain that a hemophilic infection is something else. Modern medicine claims that hemophilic infection causes the occurrence of diseases of the brain, joints and lungs in the human body. The worst thing is that hemophilic infection is especially dangerous for young children under the age of 1-5 years. To prevent the onset of the most serious diseases caused by Pfeiffer's bacillus, experts suggest today to vaccinate against hemophilic infection in young children.

Hemophilus influenzae diseases

In the genus of “hemophilus” there are more than 16 species of bacteria, each of which is capable of causing a certain kind of disease. The most dangerous is the b-type hemophilic bacillus, which causes the most severe changes in the human body, and the modern vaccine is aimed at combating it.

Doctors understand a hemophilic infection as a whole series of severe pathologies that are caused by one pathogen - a hemophilic bacillus. Hemophilus influenzae can be located on the mucous membranes of 100% of healthy people, this is its natural habitat in wildlife. Any person can serve as an asymptomatic bacteriocarrier, which itself does not get sick, but spreads the infection. The main risk group for the occurrence of such infections, which often result in complications, is considered the age group of children from six months to 4-5 years. This is due to the weak protective functions of young children, compared with adults, the huge burden on the child's body at an early age due to active bacterial reproduction for the formation of natural flora and adaptation to the outside world, frequent meetings of a young child with pathogens still unknown to his body.

Such conditions lead the body of a fragile child to stresses, in the light of which contact with the causative agent of hemophilic infection often develops into serious diseases. To avoid such difficulties, it is necessary to vaccinate a newborn, which will help protect the body from various complications characteristic of a hemophilic infection.

Among the main diseases that arise as a result of provocation in the child’s body of a hemophilic infection, doctors distinguish the following most serious pathologies:

  • inflammatory processes in the membranes of the brain or spinal cord (purulent meningitis);
  • inflammatory processes in the human lungs (pneumonia, pleurisy);
  • purulent inflammatory process in the middle ear (otitis media);
  • purulent arthritis and other severe joint pathologies;
  • blood poisoning (septicemia);
  • purulent diseases localized in the upper respiratory tract and in the internal organs (in the heart, maxillary sinuses and others);
  • inflammatory processes in the subcutaneous tissue (cellulitis).

Most often, the result of hemophilic infection is otitis media, pneumonia or meningitis. These diseases are most often found in children from 6 months to 5 years old, and when they are discovered, doctors talk about disappointing statistics - more than 5% of all patients at this age die. However, this fact can be easily corrected by just using the vaccine against hemophilic infection for your child in a timely manner.

The effectiveness of vaccinations against hemophilic infection was proved by scientists back in the forties of the last century, however, it was included in the number of compulsory vaccines in America and the EU only in the 90s of the 20th century. In our country, it has become customary to vaccinate against hemophilic infection only since 2011. The schedule of its implementation fully coincides with the schedules of the remaining age-related vaccinations.

Indications and schedule of vaccination

Among the main indications for vaccination against hemophilic bacillus, the following criteria are distinguished:

  • age from 3 months;
  • start visiting preschools;
  • the presence in the body of any immunodeficiency (HIV infection, cancer), as well as the postoperative period when the spleen is removed;
  • elderly age;
  • living in a large collective of children - an orphanage, a large family.

In the first year of life, it is necessary to get vaccination against hemophilic infection for absolutely all children. For adults, such a vaccine can be administered at will if there are factors that contribute to the development of hemophilic infection in the adult body.

Based on the age when a person is vaccinated, a vaccination schedule against Pfeiffer's bacillus is also being built. Inoculations for vaccinations necessarily contain a capsular polysaccharide membrane of the hemophilic bacteria, which is enhanced by tetanus toxoid. Such a lyophilisate (that is, a substance that contains all of the above) is a white or white-gray dry substance, requiring dissolution in a liquid medium. The vaccine is administered subcutaneously or intramuscularly.

Doctors recommend the first vaccination at three months of age, the second at 4.5, and the third at 6 months. Such a threefold vaccination protects a fragile human body in 95% of cases. After the last vaccination at the age of 18 months (revaccination), the body's defense against hemophilic bacillus grows to 100%.

If, at 3 months, the child was not vaccinated, then the vaccine administration schedule is somewhat modified. So, the first vaccination must necessarily occur after 6 months of age, and the second - exactly 30 days after the first. Revaccination will need to be done in this case 12 months after the second vaccination.

If the child was not vaccinated against a hemophilic infection before the age of one year, then his vaccination occurs in one stage. As a rule, up to this age, babies are already faced with a hemophilic infection and their body independently develops antibodies to the disease, so in this case, the medicine just tries to help. With a single injection of the vaccine, an active immune defense of the human body is produced, and when faced with a similar infection, the disease will proceed easily and without serious complications.

An adult must first test for the presence of antibodies to hemophilic infection, and only then establish a schedule and the number of necessary uses of the drug.

Adverse effects and vaccination reactions

All analogues of hemophilic infection vaccines have approximately the same characteristics, therefore, in this case, it is not very important which vaccine is given to the child. As a rule, there are no reactions to it or they are very weak. Antibodies against hemophilic bacillus, with proper and complete immunization, are produced for the next 4 years of a person’s life and protect him in the most acute moments of an infection.

Rarely, after vaccinating a child against this disease, it is possible to detect infiltration, redness at the injection site. Such reactions in most cases do not indicate the body’s reaction to the vaccine, but about the introduction of infection during the injection. Also, after the injection, the child's body temperature may slightly increase, he may feel weakness, lethargy, sleep disturbances and loss of appetite.

After vaccination against a hemophilic infection, only one type of side effect can occur - a small rash, as with Urticaria (urticaria), localized at the injection site (less commonly, spreading throughout the child’s body). This is an allergic reaction to the drug.

However, all of the above reactions and side effects apply only to single-component vaccines. With the introduction of a multicomponent drug that simultaneously protects a person from pertussis, diphtheria, tetanus, hepatitis B, polio, reactions can be more pronounced and stronger. This is due to the reactive ability of the human body to respond to the introduction of components aimed at developing immunity. The most common cramps, fever, swelling of the legs, pain at the injection site, neuritis (where vaccination was made), the occurrence of bronchitis, nausea and vomiting, skin itching.

After the introduction of any multicomponent vaccine and the occurrence of side effects, desensitization of the body is necessary. Symptomatic therapy is performed. It is recommended to reduce the high temperature with antipyretic drugs suitable for the child in terms of effectiveness and form of administration, redness on the extremities is treated with anti-inflammatory drugs, allergic manifestations with antihistamines. In cases of severe reactions, for example, with the occurrence of Quincke's edema, you should definitely consult a doctor.

To avoid complications after vaccination, it is recommended that you go to a doctor for an examination. A couple of weeks before the proposed vaccination, you should limit contact with potentially sick people with any type of infection (limit stay in groups). You can not give the child to try new foods shortly before the day of vaccination, because in this case no one can say for sure what caused the side effect, vaccination or product.

The vaccine against hemophilic infection as a whole is very well tolerated by the human body at any age. However, after holding it, you should remain under the supervision of doctors for about 30 minutes to avoid the occurrence of severe allergic reactions. Also, contacts with potentially infected people, long bath procedures (better than a shower than a bath), and new foods in the diet are contraindicated for the child.

In rare cases, vaccination against Pfeiffer's bacillus is not carried out. This happens if the child has reached the age of five (the exception is the person entering the risk group for this infection), has not reached another 3 months of age, if there is evidence of an allergy to the components of the vaccine. Also, vaccination is postponed in the event of an acute respiratory illness until complete recovery and restoration of immunity.

Varieties of modern vaccines

There are a number of highly effective vaccines on the drug market today that help protect the body against hemophilic infections.

The French Act-Hib vaccine is a single-component, well-tolerated and, importantly, highly compatible with other vaccines. This vaccine rarely gives reactions, they are mostly based on allergies due to the composition of the drug.

Another French vaccine Pentaxim is already multicomponent, protecting children’s body at the same time from such terrible infectious diseases as whooping cough, tetanus, polio and diphtheria. This advantage of the vaccine determines its high price, but the manufacturers keep the quality of the drug at the highest level.

The Hiberix, a single-component hemophilic vaccine, allows vaccination of a person 6 weeks of age old. Such early vaccination is very necessary for children on artificial feeding.

But another Belgian multicomponent vaccine, Infanrix Hexa, helps protect the human body from all the same infections as Pentaxim, but also fights against hepatitis B.

The cost of such a drug is high, but the mechanism of action and effectiveness are up to standard.

Vaccination aimed at combating hemophilic infection is mandatory for all young children, as it helps to protect a fragile body from such serious diseases as meningitis, pneumonia and others with almost a 100% probability.

Sources
  1. MV (Medveznik - the portal of the Russian doctor) - Called haemophilus influenzae: urgency of the problem and vaccination
The author of the article:
Izvozchikova Nina Vladislavovna

Specialty: infectious disease specialist, gastroenterologist, pulmonologist.

Total length of service: 35 years.

Education: 1975-1982, 1MI, San Gig, highest qualification, infectious diseases doctor.

Science degree: doctor of the highest category, candidate of medical sciences.

Training:

  1. Infectious diseases.
  2. Parasitic diseases.
  3. Emergency conditions.
  4. HIV
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